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Race discrimination and vilification

Victoria is a diverse and multicultural state, with people from many different backgrounds making up our communities. The law protects your right to be treated equally, no matter where you are from or the colour of your skin.


It’s against the law to discriminate against you or vilify you because of your race, ethnicity, skin colour, or any characteristics associated with a particular race. The law deals with public behaviour, not personal beliefs.

A young African-Australian woman smiles at the camera.

Photo by Prince Akachi on Unsplash

What is race discrimination?

Race discrimination is when someone treats you unfairly, including bullying you, because of your race, skin colour, ancestry, nationality or ethnic background.

Under the Equal Opportunity Act 2010, race means a person’s:

  • colour
  • descent or ancestry
  • nationality
  • ethnic background
  • any characteristics associated with a particular race.

How does the law protect me?

Discrimination is against the law if it happens in an area of public life such as:

Under the Equal Opportunity Act, duty holders (such as employers, schools, and goods and service providers) have a positive duty to eliminate discrimination, sexual harassment and victimisation in these areas, as far as possible.

It is also against the law to victimise a person, which means treat them badly, because they have made complaint about discrimination or helped someone else make a complaint.

You can make a complaint

Get help from us.

You can make a complaint to us if you think you have experienced:

If you wish, someone else can make a complaint for you. Find out how we help people resolve complaints.

We can also give you information about your rights.

Race discrimination at work

Almost 40% of the race discrimination complaints we received were work related (38.77% in 2020-21). 

While a person is responsible for their own unlawful behaviour, employers can also be held responsible.

Under the Equal Opportunity Act, employers have a positive duty to eliminate discrimination, sexual harassment and victimisation as far as possible.

Victoria is unique in having a positive duty, which creates an opportunity to prevent unlawful behaviour. It helps organisations put a healthy workplace culture in place, just as occupational health and safety laws require employers to take appropriate steps to ensure injuries don’t occur.

To ensure they are complying with the positive duty, organisations should also put measures in place to ensure that complaints are responded to swiftly and appropriately when they do arise.

The positive duty applies to employers of all sizes, regardless of whether they are a major company or a small cafe, and covers all types of workers:

  • full-time, part-time and casual employees
  • agents and contract workers
  • trainees and apprentices.

It applies to all stages of employment, including:

What about vilification?

Racial and religious vilification is also against the law.

The Racial and Religious Tolerance Act protects you from vilification, which means

  • something done in public, which is
  • based on the race or religion of a person or group of people, and is
  • encouraging other people to hate or ridicule them.

The legal definition of vilification is “behaviour that incites hatred, serious contempt, revulsion or severe ridicule for a person or group of people, because of their race or religion”.

Comments, jokes or other acts related to the race or religion of a person may not be seen as vilification, but they could still be the basis for a complaint of discrimination if they take place in one of the areas of public life covered by the Equal Opportunity Act.

Are there any exceptions to the law?

There are some exceptions in the Equal Opportunity Act that mean it’s not against the law to discriminate in particular circumstances. For example, discrimination is not against the law if there is a real risk to someone’s health, safety or property.

Find out more about exceptions.

My human rights under the Charter

Every Victorian has the right to equal and effective protection against discrimination, and to enjoy their human rights without discrimination.

Victoria’s Charter of Human Rights and Responsibilities contains 20 basic rights that promote and protect the values of freedom, respect, equality, and dignity.

The Victorian Government, local councils and other public authorities must always consider Charter rights, including the right to equality, when they create laws, develop policies and deliver their services.

Find out more about your human rights under the Charter and what to do if you think they have been breached.

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First Nations rights

It is against the law to treat you unfairly or bully you because you are a First Nations person.

Racism resources for multicultural and multifaith audiences

We have information and resources to help you learn more about your rights relating to racism and discrimination.

Our services for First Nations people

This page includes information on how we can support you in speaking up, stories from other First Nations people and other services available.

There’s no place for racism in Victoria – resource centre

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Level 3, 204 Lygon Street Carlton Victoria 3053

General enquiries

1300 891 848

Enquiry line
1300 292 153 or (03) 9032 3583

1300 152 494

NRS Voice Relay
1300 555 727 then use 1300 292 153

Media enquiries
0447 526 642

The Victorian Equal Opportunity and Human Rights Commission acknowledges that we work on the traditional lands of the Wurundjeri people of the Kulin Nation. We also work remotely and serve communities on the lands of other Traditional Custodians.

We pay our respects to their Elders past and present.