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We all want to be treated fairly. At work or school, when we buy something or receive a service. We don’t want to be judged simply because of how we look, our disability, sex, or our age. Unfortunately, people are often judged on an aspect of their body or character, rather than being seen as a whole person. In Victoria we have a law that protects people from this kind of unfair treatment.

Photo by Brooke Cagle on Unsplash

What is discrimination?

When we talk about a person being discriminated against, it means they’re being treated badly or unfairly because of a personal characteristic that is protected by the law. The Equal Opportunity Act 2010 describes it as being treated “unfavourably”.

How does the law protect me?

The Equal Opportunity Act makes discrimination because of a protected personal characteristic against the law. The Commission can help resolve complaints of discrimination.

Protected characteristics

Characteristics protected in the Equal Opportunity Act are:

Protected areas of public life

Discrimination is against the law when it happens in a specific area of public life.

These public places include:

People who work in these areas have a positive duty to make sure you don’t face discrimination.

Discrimination in the workplace

Around half of all complaints that come to us are about the workplace (52 per cent in 2018-19).

While a person is responsible for their own unlawful behaviour, employers can also be held responsible.

Under the Equal Opportunity Act, employers have a positive duty to eliminate discrimination, sexual harassment and victimisation as far as possible.

Victoria is unique in having a positive duty, which creates an opportunity to prevent unlawful behaviour. It helps organisations put a healthy workplace culture in place, just as occupational health and safety laws require employers to take appropriate steps to ensure injuries don’t occur.

Organisations must also put measures in place to ensure that complaints are responded to swiftly and appropriately when they do arise.

The positive duty applies to employers of all sizes, regardless of whether they are a major company or a small cafe, and covers all types of workers:

  • full-time, part-time and casual employees
  • agents and contract workers
  • trainees and apprentices.

It applies to all stages of employment, including:

Different kinds of discrimination

Discrimination can be direct or indirect. Both kinds of discrimination are against the law.

Direct discrimination

Direct discrimination happens when someone is treated unfavourably because of a personal characteristic protected by the law.

Direct discrimination often happens because of unfair assumptions about what people with certain personal characteristics can and cannot do.

For example, George applies for a position with a construction company but doesn’t get the job. When he calls the company’s human resources manager to ask why he wasn’t chosen, she tells George, “We’ve employed people from your country before. You lot don’t share our work ethic”.

Indirect discrimination

Indirect discrimination happens when there is an unreasonable requirement, condition or practice that disadvantages a person, or a group of people, because of a personal characteristic.

For example, a factory makes all employees start at 6am. This might seem to treat everyone equally, but it could disadvantage employees needing to care for children, who are usually women. If it is not a reasonable requirement, this will be indirect discrimination.

Are there any exceptions to the law?

There are some exceptions in the Equal Opportunity Act that mean it’s not against the law to discriminate in particular circumstances. For example, discrimination is not against the law if there is a real risk to someone’s health, safety or property.

Find out more about exceptions.

What can I do if I’m discriminated against?

You can make a complaint

Get help from the Victorian Equal Opportunity and Human Rights Commission.

You can make a complaint to us if you think you have experienced:

If you wish, someone else can make a complaint for you.

Find out how the Commission helps people resolve complaints.

We can also give you information about your rights.

It is also against the law to victimise a person, which means treat them badly or unfairly, because they have made a complaint about discrimination, sexual harassment or vilification, or have helped someone else to make a complaint.


Level 3, 204 Lygon Street Carlton Victoria 3053

General enquiries

1300 891 848

Enquiry line
1300 292 153 or (03) 9032 3583

1300 152 494

NRS Voice Relay
1300 555 727 then use 1300 292 153

Media enquiries
0447 526 642

The Victorian Equal Opportunity and Human Rights Commission acknowledges Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples as First Australians and recognises their culture, history, diversity and deep connection to the land.

We acknowledge that the Commission is on the land of the Kulin Nation and pay our respects to Elders past and present.